#### Fractions of Numbers

Pupils should be taught to:

• count up and down in tenths;
• recognise that tenths arise from dividing an object into 10 equal parts and in dividing one-digit numbers or quantities by 10
• recognise, find and write fractions of a discrete set of objects: unit fractions and non-unit fractions with small denominators
• recognise and use fractions as numbers: unit fractions and non-unit fractions with small denominators
• recognise and show, using diagrams, equivalent fractions with small denominators
• add and subtract fractions with the same denominator within one whole [for example, 7 5 +7 1 = 7 6 ]
• compare and order unit fractions, and fractions with the same denominators
• solve problems that involve all of the above.

Notes and guidance (non-statutory) Pupils connect tenths to place value, decimal measures and to division by 10. They begin to understand unit and non-unit fractions as numbers on the number line, and deduce relations between them, such as size and equivalence. They should go beyond the [0, 1] interval, including relating this to measure. Pupils understand the relation between unit fractions as operators (fractions of), and division by integers. They continue to recognise fractions in the context of parts of a whole, numbers, measurements, a shape, and unit fractions as a division of a quantity. Pupils practise adding and subtracting fractions with the same denominator through a variety of increasingly complex problems to improve fluency.

#### Year 4 programme of study

Pupils should be taught to:

• recognise and show, using diagrams, families of common equivalent fractions
• count up and down in hundredths; recognise that hundredths arise when dividing an object by one hundred and dividing tenths by ten.
• solve problems involving increasingly harder fractions to calculate quantities, and fractions to divide quantities, including non-unit fractions where the answer is a whole number
• add and subtract fractions with the same denominator
• recognise and write decimal equivalents of any number of tenths or hundredths
• recognise and write decimal equivalents to 4 1 , 2 1 , 4 3
• find the effect of dividing a one- or two-digit number by 10 and 100, identifying the value of the digits in the answer as ones, tenths and hundredths
• round decimals with one decimal place to the nearest whole number
• compare numbers with the same number of decimal places up to two decimal places and solve simple measure and money problems involving fractions and decimals to two decimal places.
• Mathematics – key stages 1 and 2 27 Notes and guidance (Pupils should connect hundredths to tenths and place value and decimal measure. They extend the use of the number line to connect fractions, numbers and measures. Pupils understand the relation between non-unit fractions and multiplication and division of quantities, with particular emphasis on tenths and hundredths. Pupils make connections between fractions of a length, of a shape and as a representation of one whole or set of quantities. Pupils use factors and multiples to recognise equivalent fractions and simplify where appropriate (for example, 9 6 = 3 2 or 4 1 = 8 2 ). Pupils continue to practise adding and subtracting fractions with the same denominator, to become fluent through a variety of increasingly complex problems beyond one whole. Pupils are taught throughout that decimals and fractions are different ways of expressing numbers and proportions. Pupils’ understanding of the number system and decimal place value is extended at this stage to tenths and then hundredths. This includes relating the decimal notation to division of whole number by 10 and later 100. They practise counting using simple fractions and decimals, both forwards and backwards. Pupils learn decimal notation and the language associated with it, including in the context of measurements. They make comparisons and order decimal amounts and quantities that are expressed to the same number of decimal places. They should be able to represent numbers with one or two decimal places in several ways, such as on number lines.